The small jar is called Abura Tsubo (abura means oil, tsubo means jar). It is a container of oil, specifically of hair oil for ladies in mid to late Edo period (1603 - 1868). The jar was only made in the Edo period when elaborate hairdos were common. When Edo ended, and the Japanese opened our country to the western world, women cut their hair and changed to a “modern” hairdo. Ladies no longer needed the oil; thus the jar was no longer produced.
It is fun to find an excellent work made for one specific fashion related purpose in a particular era. One can imagine the jar adorned by an elegant lady who had an outstanding still understated taste. An imagination goes to a wife of a high-ranking samurai.